The Complexities of the Mother's Role in Providing Early Childhood Learning Experiences for Children with Developmental Delays

How to Cite

Rosepti, P. (2022). The Complexities of the Mother’s Role in Providing Early Childhood Learning Experiences for Children with Developmental Delays. Muslim Education Review, 1(2), 257-277.


The mothers’ role in bringing up children with developmental delays seems to be challenging. Problems when they decide to access occupational therapy to help their children’s development have been revealed. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the common complexities that mothers experience while taking their children to occupational therapy as a rehabilitation program to deal with developmental delays. As well, it also describes mothers’ personal efforts in tackling those complexities. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight mothers and Colaizzi’s method was used to analyze the data as proposed by the phenomenological approach. The results reveal that mothers experience complexities when their children are diagnosed as having developmental delays. These include sadness and shock, panic and confusion, and guilt. Other difficulties include time management, cost demands, and support systems related to the therapy process. In tackling those complexities, mothers need to build their capacity for self-efficacy and self-empowerment as well as try to accept their children’s condition and to change habits as recommended by therapists. Not only describing the phenomenon, this study also analyzed some developmental screening tests applied in different countries to come up with new models of preventive actions in Indonesia.


Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, 5(1), 307-337.

Bandura, A., & Ramachaudran, V. S. (1994). Encyclopedia of human behavior. 4, 71-81 Academic Press,.

Billen, R. M. (2012). Families of young children with developmental disabilities: A model of the parenting process. [Master's Thesis, University of Tennessee].

Brown, K. A., Parikh, S., & Patel, D. R. (2020). Understanding basic concepts of developmental diagnosis in children. Translational Pediatrics, 9(Suppl 1), S9.

Gross, D. (2018). Infancy: Development from birth to age 3. Rowman & Littlefield.

Harper, J. (2013). Parenting behaviors in mothers of children diagnosed with developmental delay: A grounded theory study. [Doctoral dissertation, Capella University].

IDAI. (2018). Aplikasi primaku dan primapro. (accessed in January 18, 2022).

IDAI. (2022, January 18). Mengenal keterlambatan perkembangan umum pada anak.

Inggriani, D. M., Rinjani, M., & Susanti, R. (2019). Deteksi dini tumbuh kembang anak usia 0-6 tahun berbasis aplikasi android. Wellness And Healthy Magazine, 1(1), 115-124.

Lehr, M., Wecksell, B., Nahum, L., Neuhaus, D., Teel, K. S., Linares, L. O., & Diaz, A. (2016). Parenting stress, child characteristics, and developmental delay from birth to age five in teen mother-child dyads. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25(3), 1035-1043.

Lowers-Roach, M. (2021). Parents raising children with intellectual/developmental disabilities in Jamaica: A grounded theory approach. [PhD dissertation, Molloy College].

Nur, H., Tairas, M. M. W., & Hendriani, W. (2018). The experience of hope for mothers with speech language delay children. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology, 7(2), 104-117.

Pollock, N. (2009). Sensory integration: A review of the current state of the evidence. Occupational Therapy Now, 11(5), 6-10.

Praveena, K. R., & Sasikumar, S. (2021). Application of Colaizzi's method of data analysis in phenomenological research. Medico Legal Update, 21(2), 914-918.

Ramdhan, M., & Arifin, T. (2013). Aplikasi sistem informasi geografis dalam penilaian proporsi luas laut Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmiah Geomatika, 19(2), 141-146.

Richter, L. M., Cappa, C., Issa, G., Lu, C., Petrowski, N., & Naicker, S. N. (2020). Data for action on early childhood development. The Lancet, 396(10265), 1784-1786.

Soebadi, A. (2107). Update in child neurology; Everything you should know about motor and movement problems in children. IDAI Cabang DKI Jakarta.

Suryadi, B., & Santoso, T. I. (2017). Self-Efficacy, adversity quotient, and students' achievement in mathematics. International Education Studies,10(10), 12-19.

Valla, L., Wentzel-Larsen, T., Hofoss, D., & Slinning, K. (2015). Prevalence of suspected developmental delays in early infancy: Results from a regional population-based longitudinal study. BMC Pediatrics, 15(1), 1-8.

Watling, R., Bodison, S., Henry, D. A., & Miller-Kuhaneck, H. (2006). Sensory integration: It's not just for children. Occupational Therapy Faculty Publications, 17.

Woolfolk, A. (2016). Educational psychology: Active learning edition. Pearson.

Yunita, D., Luthfi, A., & Erlinawati, E. (2020). Hubungan pemberian stimulasi dini dengan perkembangan motorik pada balita di desa Tanjung Berulak Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Kampar Tahun 2019. Jurnal Kesehatan Tambusai, 1(2), 76-84.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.